Below you will find RAPID/MOCHA-related publications, cruise reports, and other relevant bibliography.



McCarthy, G. D., and Coauthors, 2017: The importance of deep, basinwide measurements in optimized Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation observing arrays. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 122, 1808-1826.


Moat, B.I., Josey, S.A., Sinha, B., Blaker, A.T., Smeed, D.A., McCarthy, G., Johns, W.E., Hirschi, J.M., Frajka-Williams, E., Rayner, D. and Duchez, A., 2016. Major variations in subtropical North Atlantic heat transport at short (5 day) timescales and their causes. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 125, 3237-3249.


Frajka-Williams, E., Meinen, C.S., Johns, W.E., Smeed, D.A., Duchez, A., Lawrence, A.J., Cuthbertson, D.A., McCarthy, G.D., Bryden, H.L., Moat, B.I. and Rayner, D., 2015. Compensation between meridional flow components of the AMOC at 26° N. Ocean Science Discussions, 12(6), pp.2705-2741.

Barringer, M.O., McCarthy, G.D., Willis, J., Smeed, D.A., Rayner, D., Johns, W.E., Meinen, C.S., Lankhorst, M., Send, U., Cunningham, S.A. and Kanzow, T.O., 2015. Meridional overturning circulation observations in the North Atlantic Ocean. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 96(7), pp.S78-S80.

McCarthy, G. D., and Coauthors, 2015: Measuring the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation at 26 degrees N. Progress in Oceanography, 130, 91-111.


Baringer, MO and Johns, WE and Hobbs, WR and Garzoli, S and Dong, S and Willis, J, Meridional oceanic heat transport in the Atlantic Ocean [in 'State of the Climate in 2014'], American Meteorological Society. Bulletin, 96, (7) pp. S81-S82.

Smeed, D. A., McCarthy, G. D., Cunningham, S. A., Frajka-Williams, E., Rayner, D., Johns, W. E., Meinen, C. S., Baringer, M. O., Moat, B. I., Duchez, A., and Bryden, H. L., 2014. Observed decline of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation 2004­-2012, Ocean Sci., 10, 29-38, doi:10.5194/os-10-29-2014, 2014.

Xu, X., E. P. Chassignet, W. E. Johns, W. J. Schmitz, Jr., and E. J. Metzger, 2014: Intraseasonal to interannual variability of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation from eddy-resolving simulations and observations. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 119, 5140-5159.

Zhao, J., and W. E. Johns, 2014. Wind-forced interannual variability of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation at 26.5°N, J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 119, 2403–2419, doi:10.1002/2013JC009407.

Zhao, J., and W. E. Johns, 2014. Wind-Driven Seasonal Cycle of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 44, 1541–1562. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JPO-D-13-0144.1

Cunningham, S.A., C. D. Roberts, E. Frajka-Williams, W. E. Johns, W. Hobbs, M. D. Palmer, D. Rayner,  D. A. Smeed, and G. McCarthy, 2014. Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation slowdown cooled the subtropical ocean. Geophys. Res. Lett., 40(23), 6202-6207.


Frajka-Williams, E., W. E. Johns, C. S. Meinen, L. M. Beal, and S. A. Cunningham, 2013: Eddy impacts on the Florida Current. Geophysical Research Letters, 40, 349-353.

Meinen, C. S., W. E. Johns, S. L. Garzoli, E. van Sebille, D. Rayner, T. Kanzow, and M. O. Baringer, 2013: Variability of the Deep Western Boundary Current at 26.5 degrees N during 2004-2009. Deep-Sea Research Part Ii-Topical Studies in Oceanography, 85, 154-168.

Msadek, R., W. E. Johns, S. G. Yeager, G. Danabasoglu, T. L. Delworth, and A. Rosati, 2013: The Atlantic Meridional Heat Transport at 26.5 degrees N and Its Relationship with the MOC in the RAPID Array and the GFDL and NCAR Coupled Models. Journal of Climate, 26, 4335-4356.


McCarthy, G., and Coauthors, 2012: Observed interannual variability of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation at 26.5 degrees N. Geophysical Research Letters, 39.


Baringer, M. O., T. O. Kanzow, C. S. Meinen, S. A. Cunningham, D. Rayner, W. E. Johns, H. L. Bryden, Eleanor Faika-Williams, J. J-M. Hirschi, M. P. Chidichimo,L. M. Beal and J. Marotzke, 2011.  Meridional Overturning Circulation Observations in the Subtropical North Atlantic, in State of the Climate in 2010, Blunden, J., D. S. Arndt, M. O. Baringer  (eds.), Bull. Am. Met. Soc., 92, S95–S98.  doi: 10.1175/1520-0477-92.6.S1

Johns, W.E., Baringer, M.O.,  Beal, L.M., Cunningham, S.A., Kanzow, T., Bryden, H.L., Hirschi, J., Marotzke, J., Meinen, C., Shaw, B., Curry, R.  Continuous, array-based estimates of Atlantic Ocean heat transport at 26.5° N.  Journal of Climate [in press] (PDF)

Rayner, D., and Coauthors, 2011: Monitoring the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Deep-Sea Research Part Ii-Topical Studies in Oceanography, 58, 1744-1753.

van Sebille, E., M. O. Baringer, W. E. Johns, C. S. Meinen, L. M. Beal, M. F. de Jong, and H. M. van Aken, 2011: Propagation pathways of classical Labrador Sea water from its source region to 26 degrees N. J. Geophys. Res.- Oceans, 116.


Kanzow, T., Cunningham, S.A., Johns, W.E., Hirschi, J. J-M., Marotzke,  J., Baringer, M.O., Meinen, C.S., Chidichimo, M.P., Atkinson, C., Beal, L.M., Bryden , H.L., Collins, J.  Seasonal variability of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation at 26.5° N.  Journal of Climate, 23, 5678-5698, 2010

Chidichimo, M. P., T. Kanzow, S. A. Cunningham, W. E. Johns, and J. Marotzke, 2010: The     contribution of eastern-boundary density variations to the Atlantic meridional overturning     circulation at 26.5 degrees N. Ocean Science, 6, 475-490.


DiNezio, P. N., L. J. Gramer, W. E. Johns, C. S. Meinen, and M. O. Baringer, 2009: Observed     Interannual Variability of the Florida Current: Wind Forcing and the North Atlantic Oscillation.     Journal of Physical Oceanography, 39, 721-736.

Kanzow, T., and Coauthors, 2009: Basinwide Integrated Volume Transports in an Eddy-Filled Ocean.     Journal of Physical Oceanography, 39, 3091-3110.


Baehr J., McInerney, Keller K., Marotzke J. Optimization of an observing system Design for the North Atlantic overturning circulation. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 25: 625-634, 2008.

Beal L., E. Williams, J. Hummon, O. Brown, E. Kearns, W. Baringer. Five years of Florida Current Structure and Transport measured from the Royal Caribbean Cruise ship Explorer of the Seas . Journal of Geophysical Research, 113, C06001, doi:10.1029/2007JC004154, 2008.

Johns, W.E., L.M. Beal, M.O. Baringer, J.R. Molina, S.A. Cunningham, T. Kanzow, and D. Rayner, 2008: Variability of Shallow and Deep Western Boundary Currents off the Bahamas during 2004–05: Results from the 26°N RAPID–MOC Array. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 38, 605–623. (PDF)


Baehr, J., H. Haak, S. Alderson, S.A. Cunningham, J.H. Jungclaus, and J. Marotzke, 2007: Timely Detection of Changes in the Meridional Overturning Circulation at 26°N in the Atlantic. J. Climate, 20, 5827–5841. (PDF)

Cunningham, S.A., T. Kanzow, D. Rayner, M.O. Baringer, W.E. Johns, J. Marotzke, H.R. Longworth, E.M. Grant, J. J.-M. Hirschi, L.M. Beal, C.S. Meinen, and H.L. Bryden, 2007: Temporal Variability of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation at 26.5°N. Science, 317, 935-938. (PDF, also download Supporting Online Material)

Kanzow, T., S.A. Cunningham, D. Rayner, J. J.-M. Hirschi, W.E. Johns, M.O. Baringer, H.L. Bryden, L.M. Beal, C.S. Meinen, and J. Marotzke, 2007: Observed Flow Compensation Associated with the MOC at 26.5°N in the Atlantic. Science, 317, 938-941. (PDF, also download Supporting Online Material)


Hirschi J., Baehr J., Marotzke J., Stark J., Cunningham S.A. and Beismann J.O., 2003: A monitoring design for the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Geophysical Research Letters, 30, No 7, doi:10.1029/2002GL016776. (PDF)

Cruise Reports

RRS Discovery Cruise No. D345.  21 November  to  3 December 2010

R/V Seward Johnson Cruise No. SJ-04-08 4 April to 30 April, 2008

R/V Seward Johnson Cruise No. SJ-14-06 25 September to 12 October, 2006

R/V Knorr Cruise No. KN182-2  2 May to 26 May, 2005



Baehr J., Keller K. and Marotzke J., 2007: Detecting potential changes in the meridional overturning circulation at 26°N in the Atlantic. Climatic Change, p. doi: 10.1007/s10584-006-9153-z. (PDF)

Hadfield R. E., N. C. Wells, S. A. Josey, J. J.-M. Hirschi, 2007: On the accuracy of North Atlantic temperature and heat storage fields from Argo, J. Geophys. Res., 112, C01009, doi:10.1029/2006JC003825. (PDF)

Hirschi J. and Marotzke J., 2007:Reconstructing the meridional overturning circulation from boundary densities and the zonal wind stress. J. Phys. Oceanog., 37, 3, 743-763. (PDF)

Kanzow T., Send U. and McCartney M.S., 2007: On the variability of the deep meridional transports in the tropical North Atlantic. Deep Sea Research I, Volume 55, Issue 12, 1601-1623, 2008.


Hirschi J., Lynch-Stieglitz J., 2006: Ocean margin densities and paleoestimates of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation: a model study. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, 7, doi:10.1029/2006GC001301. (PDF)

Meinen, C.S., M.O. Baringer, and S.L. Garzoli., 2006: Variability in Deep Western Boundary Current transports: Preliminary results from 26.5°N in the Atlantic. Geophys. Res. Letters, 33: p. doi:10.1029/2006GL026965. (PDF)

Kanzow T., Send U., Zenk W., Chave A. and Rhein M. 2006: Monitoring the deep integrated meridional flow in the tropical North Atlantic: Long-term performance of a geostrophic array. Deep Sea Research I, 2006, 53, 528-546. (PDF)


Bryden H.L., Johns W.E. and Saunders P.M., 2005: Deep Western Boundary Current East of Abaco: Mean structure and transport, J. Mar. Research, 63: p. 35-57. (PDF)

Bryden H.L., Longworth H.R. and Cunningham S.A., 2005: Slowing of the Atlantic Overturning Circulation at 25°N. Nature, 438, pp 655-657. (PDF)

Johns W.E., Kanzow T. and Zantopp R., 2005: Estimating ocean transports with dynamic height moorings: An application in the Atlantic Deep Western Boundary Current. Deep Sea Research, 52(8): p. 1542-1567. (PDF)

Kanzow T., Flechtner F., Chave A., Schmidt R., Schwintzerm P. and Send U., 2005: Seasonal variation of ocean bottom pressure derived from GRACE: Local validation and global patterns. Journal of Geophysical Research, 110(C09001): p. doi:10.1029/2004JC002772. (PDF)

Longworth, H., J. Marotzke, and T.F. Stocker, 2005: Ocean gyres and abrupt change in the thermohaline circulation: a conceptual analysis. J. Climate, 18(13): p. doi.org/10.1175/JCLI3397.1. (PDF)

Shoosmith, D.R., M.O. Baringer, W.E. Johns, 2005: A continuous record of Florida current temperature transport at 27oN. Geophys. Res. Lets., (32), L23603, doi:10.1029/2005GL024075. (PDF)


Baehr J., Hirschi J., Beismann J.O. and Marotzke J., 2004:Monitoring the meridional overturning circulation in the North Atlantic: A model-based array design study. J. Mar. Research 62, No 3, pp 283-312. (PDF)

Frye, D., N. Hogg, and C. Wunsch, 2004: A Long duration mooring for ocean observation. Sea Technology, 45(6): p. 29-39.


Baringer, M. and J. Larsen. Sixteen years of Florida Current transport at 27°N. Geophysical Research Letters, 28, No 16, pp3179-3182. (PDF)


Fillenbaum, E.R., T.N. Lee, W.E. Johns and R.J. Zantopp, 1997: Meridional heat transport variability at 26.5°N in the North Atlantic. J. Phys. Oceanog., 27(1), 153-174. (PDF)

Johns, W.E., T.N. Lee, R.J. Zantopp and E. Fillenbaum, 1997: Updated transatlantic heat flux at 26.5°N. International WOCE Newsletter, 27, 15-22.


Lee, T.N., W.E. Johns, R.J. Zantopp and E.R. Fillenbaum, 1996: Moored observations of Western Boundary Current variability and thermocline circulation at 26.5°N in the subtropical North Atlantic. J. Phys. Oceanog., 26(6), 962-983. (PDF)


Zantopp R.J., T.N.Lee and W.E.Johns, 1990: Moored current meter observations east of Abaco, Bahamas, at 26.5°N (STACS-10 Array). University of Miami RSMAS Technical Report 90-002, 10 pp.



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