People

Larry E. Brand

Larry E. Brand

Professor, Department of Marine Biology and Ecology

RSMAS/MBF
University of Miami
4600 Rickenbacker Causeway
Miami, FL 33149

Glassell 2

Tel: 305.421.4138
lbrand@rsmas.miami.edu

Research interests

Phytoplankton ecology with a special interest in the interaction of ecological and evolutionary processes (Publication numbers refer to my RSMAS website)

Microevolution

I am interested in the amount of genetic variability and differentiation that exists within and among populations of a species of algae, and the extent to which it allows species to adapt genetically to varying environmental conditions, thus influencing its ecological niche. See publications 4, 7, 8, 9, 14, 20, 35, and 48.

Examples: Publs. 8 and 20:

8. Brand, L.E. 1981. Genetic variability in reproduction rates in marine phytoplankton populations. Evolution 35:1117-1127.

20. Brand, L.E. 1991. Review of genetic variation in marine phytoplankton species and the ecological implications. Biol. Oceanogr. 6:397-409.

Macroevolution

I am interested in the evolutionary constraints that lead different phylogenetic lineages of algae to have different adaptations to the same environmental conditions, restricting them to different ecological niches. See publications 12, 16, and 22.

Example: Publ. 12: Brand, L.E., W.G. Sunda, and R.R.L. Guillard. 1983. Limitation of marine phytoplankton reproductive rates by zinc, manganese and iron. Limnol. Oceanogr. 28:1182-1198.

Nutritional trace metals

I am interested in the role that trace metals may play in limiting phytoplankton growth in the ocean, particularly iron, manganese, zinc, and cobalt, and how their evolutionary history has influenced different phylogenetic groups in their adaptations to these trace metals. See publications 12, 22, 23, 28, and 29.

Example: Publ. 22: Brand, L.E. 1991. Minimum iron requirements of marine phytoplankton and the implications for the biogeochemical control of new production. Limnol. Oceanogr. 36: 1756-1771.

Toxic trace metals

I am interested in the role that toxic trace metals such as copper, cadmium, and zinc may play in influencing phytoplankton community structure, and how their evolutionary history has influenced different phylogenetic groups in their adaptations to these trace metals. See publications 16, 18, 26, 27, 28, 29, and 30.

Example: Publ. 16: Brand, L.E., W.G. Sunda, and R.R.L. Guillard. 1986. Reduction of marine phytoplankton reproduction rates by copper and cadmium. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 96:225-250.

Physiological ecology

In addition to the effects of trace metals, I am interested in how other environmental factors such as light and salinity affect different phytoplankton species differentially. I examine the phylogenetic and environmental patterns to understand the ecological-evolutionary interactions. See publications 1, 5, 6, 11, 13, and 24.

Example: Publ. 5: Brand, L.E., and R.R.L. Guillard. 1981. The effects of continuous light and light intensity on the reproduction rate of twenty-two species of marine phytoplankton. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 50:119-132.

Phytoplankton influences on the environment

While most of my research is on how phytoplankton are influenced by various environmental factors, they in turn alter their environment by excreting soluble organic compounds and gases. See publications 18, 25, 26, 27, 30, and 33.

Example: Publ. 27: Moffett, J.W., L.E. Brand, P.L. Croot and K.A. Barbeau. 1997. Cu speciation and cyanobacterial distribution in harbors subject to anthropogenic Cu inputs. Limnol. Oceanogr. 42: 789-799.

Harmful Algal Blooms

Some algal species, particularly cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates, produce toxins that affect other biota, including humans. Some of the toxins are fast acting, causing gastrointestinal and/or neurological disorders within minutes, hours, or days. Others can cause liver damage, neurodegenerative diseases, or cancer, which do not develop until years or decades later. I am studying Harmful Algal Blooms of cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates in Florida coastal waters. See publications 21, 29, 31, 32, 37, 39, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 49, 50, 52, and 53.

Examples: Publs. 39, 49, and 52:

39. Brand, L.E. and A. Compton. 2007. Long-term increase in Karenia brevis abundance along the southwest Florida coast. Harmful Algae 7: 232-252.

49. Brand, L.E., J. Pablo, A. Compton, N. Hammerschlag, and D.C. Mash. 2010. Cyanobacterial blooms and the occurrence of the neurotoxin, beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), in South Florida aquatic food webs. Harmful Algae 9: 620-635.

52. Brand, L.E. 2012. Toxic Harmful Algal Blooms: Natural and anthropogenic causes. Pp. 19-51, In: New Trends in Marine and Freshwater Toxins: Food Safety Concerns, Ed. by A.G. Cabado and J.M. Vieites, Nova Science Publishers, New York.

Aquaculture

I am interested in the production of algal biomass for various purposes, including food for aquaculture, energy, and pharmaceuticals. I am also interested in developing new techniques to insure that aquaculture does not generate environmental problems. See publications 17, 19, and 38.

Example: Publ. 19: Brand, L.E. 1990. The isolation and culture of microalgae for biotechnological applications. pp. 81-115, In: Isolation of Biotechnological Organisms from Nature, Ed. by D.P. Labeda, McGraw-Hill.

Basic biology of algae

I specialize on algae, so an understanding of their basic biology is necessary. See publications 2, 3, 10, 15, and 34.

Example: Publ. 34: Brand, L.E. 2002. Phytoplankton (Planktonic Algae) in the Marine Environment. Pp. 2502-2518, In: The Encyclopedia of Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 5, Ed. by G. Bitton, John Wiley and Sons, New York.

Funding for this research at various times has been by NSF, NIH, NOAA, EPA, NPS, DOE, ONR, ACOE, and the Cove Point Foundation.

1. Nelson, D.M. and L.E. Brand. 1979. Cell-division periodicity in 13 species of marine phytoplankton on a light:dark cycle. J. Phycol . 15:67-75.

2. Waterbury, J.B., S.W. Watson, R.R.L. Guillard, and L.E. Brand. 1979. Widespread occurrence of a unicellular, marine planktonic cyanobacterium. Nature 277:293-294.

3.Dudley, W.C., J.C. Duplessy, P.L. Blackwelder, L.E. Brand, and R.R.L. Guillard. 1980. Coccoliths in Pleistocene-Holocene nannofossil assemblages. Nature 285:222-223.

4.Brand, L.E., R.R.L. Guillard, and L.S. Murphy. 1981. A method for the rapid and precise determination of acclimated phytoplankton reproduction rates. J. Plankton Res. 3:193-201.

5.Brand, L.E., and R.R.L. Guillard. 1981. The effects of continuous light and light intensity on the reproduction rate of twenty-two species of marine phytoplankton. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 50:119-132.

6. Chisholm, S.W., and L.E. Brand. 1981. Persistence of cell division phasing in marine phytoplankton in continuous light after entrainment to light:dark cycles. J. Exp.Mar. Biol. Ecol. 51:107-118.

7. Brand, L.E., L.S. Murphy, R.R.L. Guillard, and H.-t. Lee. 1981. Genetic variability and differentiation in the temperature niche component of the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana. Mar. Biol. 62:103-110.

8. Brand, L.E. 1981. Genetic variability in reproduction rates in marine phytoplankton populations. Evolution 35:1117-1127.

9. Brand, L.E. 1982. Genetic variability and spatial patterns of genetic differentiation in the reproduction rates of the marine coccolithophores Emiliania huxleyi and Gephyrocapsa oceanica. Limnol. Oceanogr. 27:236-245.

10. Tangen, K., L.E. Brand, P.L. Blackwelder, and R.R.L. Guillard. 1982. Thoracosphaera heimii (Lohmann) Kamptner is a Dinophyte: Observations on its morphology and life cycle. Mar. Micropaleo. 7: 193-212.

11. Brand, L.E. 1982. Persistent diel rhythms in the chlorophyll fluorescence of marine phytoplankton species. Mar. Biol. 69:253-262.

12. Brand, L.E., W.G. Sunda, and R.R.L. Guillard. 1983. Limitation of marine phytoplankton reproductive rates by zinc, manganese and iron. Limnol. Oceanogr. 28:1182-1198.

13. Brand, L.E. 1984. The salinity tolerance of forty-six marine phytoplankton isolates. Est. Coast. Shelf. Sci. 18:543-556.

14. Brand, L.E. 1985. Low genetic variability in reproduction rates in populations of Prorocentrum micans Ehrenb. (Dinophyceae) over Georges Bank. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 88:55-65.

15. Dudley, W.C., P. Blackwelder, L. Brand, and J.C. Duplessy. 1986. Stable isotopic composition of coccoliths. Mar. Micropaleo. 10:1-8.

16. Brand, L.E., W.G. Sunda, and R.R.L. Guillard. 1986. Reduction of marine phytoplankton reproduction rates by copper and cadmium. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 96:225-250.

17. Brand, L.E. 1986. Nutrition and culture of autotrophic ultraplankton and picoplankton. Can. Bull. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 214:205-233.

18. Moffett, J.W., R.G. Zika and L.E. Brand. 1990. Distribution and potential sources and sinks of copper chelators in the Sargasso Sea. Deep Sea Res. 37:27-35.

19. Brand, L.E. 1990. The isolation and culture of microalgae for biotechnological applications. pp. 81-115, In: Isolation of Biotechnological Organisms from Nature, Ed. by D.P. Labeda, McGraw-Hill.

20. Brand, L.E. 1991. Review of genetic variation in marine phytoplankton species and the ecological implications. Biol. Oceanogr. 6:397-409.

21. Brand, L.E., M.D. Gottfried, C.C. Baylon and N.S. Romer. 1991. The spatial and temporal distribution of phytoplankton in Biscayne Bay, Florida. Bull. Mar. Sci. 49:599-613.

22. Brand, L.E. 1991. Minimum iron requirements of marine phytoplankton and the implications for the biogeochemical control of new production. Limnol. Oceanogr. 36: 1756-1771.

23. Yih, W.H. and L.E. Brand. 1993. Iron-limited biomass yields of marine phytoplankton clones. J. Ocean. Soc. Korea 28:79-85.

24. Brand, L.E. 1994. Physiological ecology of marine coccolithophores. pp. 39-49. In: Coccolithophores, Ed. by A. Winter and W. Siesser, Cambridge University Press.

25. Milne, P.J., D.D. Riemer, R.G. Zika and L.E. Brand. 1995. Measurement of vertical distribution of isoprene in surface seawater, its chemical fate, and its emission from several phytoplankton monocultures. Mar. Chem. 48: 237-244.

26. Moffett, J.W. and L.E. Brand. 1996. Production of strong, extracellular Cu chelators by marine cyanobacteria in response to Cu stress. Limnol. Oceanogr. 41:388-395.

27. Moffett, J.W. , L.E. Brand, P.L. Croot and K.A. Barbeau. 1997. Cu speciation and cyanobacterial distribution in harbors subject to anthropogenic Cu inputs. Limnol. Oceanogr. 42: 789-799.

28. Santana-Casiano, J.M., M. Gonzalez-Davila, L.M. Laglera, J. Perez-Pena, L.E. Brand and F.J. Millero. 1997. The influence of zinc, aluminum and cadmium on the uptake kinetics of iron by algae. Mar. Chem. 59: 95-111.

29. Boyer, G.L. and L.E. Brand. 1998. Trace elements and harmful algal blooms. pp. 489-508, In: Physiological Ecology of Harmful Algal Blooms, Ed. by D.M. Anderson, A.D. Cembella and G.M. Hallegraeff, Springer-Verlag, Heidelburg.

30. Croot, P.L., J.W. Moffett and L.E. Brand. 2000. Production of extracellular Cu complexing ligands by eucaryotic phytoplankton in response to Cu stress. Limnol. Oceanogr. 45: 619-627.

31. Top, Z., L.E. Brand, R.D. Corbett, W. Burnett and J. Chanton. 2001. Helium as a tracer of groundwater input into Florida Bay. J. Coastal Res. 17: 859-868.

32. Brand, L.E. 2002. The transport of terrestrial nutrients to South Florida coastal waters. pp. 353-406, In: The Everglades, Florida Bay, and Coral Reefs of the Florida Keys, Ed. by J.W. Porter and K.G. Porter, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.

33. Heikes, B.G., W. Chang, M.E.Q. Pilson, E. Swift, H.B. Singh, A. Guenther, D.J. Jacob. B. D. Field, R. Fall, D. Riemer, and L. Brand. 2002. Atmospheric methanol budget and ocean implication. Global. Biogeochem. Cycles 16(4), 1133, doi: 10.1029/2002GB001895: 80-1 to 13.

34. Brand, L.E. 2002. Phytoplankton (Planktonic Algae) in the Marine Environment. Pp. 2502-2518, In: The Encyclopedia of Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 5, Ed. by G. Bitton, John Wiley and Sons, New York.

35. Quinn, P., H.R. Thierstein, L. Brand and A. Winter. 2003. Experimental evidence for the species character of Calcidiscus leptoporus morphotypes. J. Paleont. 77: 825-830.

36. Clark, C.D., W.T. Hiscock, F.J. Millero, G. Hitchcock, L. Brand, W.L. Miller, L. Ziolkowski, R.F. Chen and R.G. Zika. 2004. CDOM distribution and CO2 production on the Southwest Florida Shelf. Mar. Chem. 89: 145-167.

37. Olascoaga, M.J., Rypina, I.I., Brown, M.G., Beron-Vera, F.J., Kocak, H., Brand, L.E., Halliwell, G.R., and Shay, L.K. 2006. Persistent transport barrier on the west Florida shelf. Geophys. Res. Let. 33, L22603, doi10.1029/2006GL027800/

38. Benetti, D., L. Brand, J. Collins, R. Orhun, A. Benetti, B. O’Hanlon, A. Danylchuk, D. Alston, J. Rivera, and A. Cabarcas. 2006. Can offshore aquaculture of carnivorous fish be sustainable? World Aquaculture 37: 44-47.

39. Brand, L.E. and A. Compton. 2007. Long-term increase in Karenia brevis abundance along the southwest Florida coast. Harmful Algae 7: 232-252.

40. Sinigalliano, C.D., M.L. Gidley, T. Shibata, D. Whitman, T.H. Dixon, E. Laws, Hou, D. Bachoon, L. Brand, L. Amaral-Zettler, R.J. Gast, G.F. Steward, O.D. Nigro, R. Fujioka, W.Q. Betancourt, G. Vithangae, J. Mathews, L.E. Fleming, and H.M. Solo-Gabriele. 2007. Impacts of Hurricane Katrina on microbial landscape of the New Orleans area. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 104: 9029-9034.

41. Mendoza, W.G., R.N. Mead, L.E. Brand, and D. Shea. 2008. Analysis and detection of brevetoxin analogs in recent marine sediments by HPLC. Chemosphere 73: 1373-1377.

42. Erdner, D., et al., L.E. Brand one of 15 coauthors. 2008. Centers for oceans and human health: A unified approach to the challenge of harmful algal blooms. Env. Health 7: S2.

43. Glibert, P.M., and L.E. Brand, one of 53 other co-authors. 2008. Ocean urea fertilization for carbon credits poses high ecological risks. Mar. Poll. Bull. 56: 1049-1056.

44. Olascoaga, M. J., F. J. Beron-Vera, L. E. Brand, and H. Koçak . 2008. Tracing the early development of harmful algal blooms on the West Florida Shelf with the aid of Lagrangian coherent structures, J. Geophys. Res., 113, C12014, doi:10.1029/2007JC004533.

45. Scorzetti, G., L.E. Brand, G.L. Hitchcock, K.S. Rein, C. Sinigalliano , and J.W. Fell . 2009. Multiple simultaneous detection of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) through a high throughput bead array technology, with potential use in phytoplankton community analysis. Harmful Algae 8: 196-211.

46. Sinigalliano, C.D.,J. Winshell, M.A. Guerrero, G. Scorzetti, J.W. Fell, R.W. Eaton, L. Brand, and K.S. Rein. 2009. Viable cell sorting of dinoflagellatesby multi-parametric flow cytometry. Phycologia 48: 249-257.

47. Brand, L.E. 2009. Human exposure to cyanobacteria and BMAA. Amy. Lat. Scler. 10: 85-95.

48. Bollmann, J., C. Klaas, and L. Brand. 2010. Morphological and physiological characteristics of Gephyrocapsa oceanica var. typica Kamptner 1943 in culture experiments: Evidence for genotypic variability. Protist 161: 78-90.

49. Brand, L.E., J. Pablo, A. Compton, N. Hammerschlag, and D.C. Mash. 2010. Cyanobacterial blooms and the occurrence of the neurotoxin, beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), in South Florida aquatic food webs. Harmful Algae 9: 620-635.

50. Bienfang, P., S. V. DeFelice, E. A. Laws, L. Brand, R. R. Bidigare, S. Christensen, H. Trapido-Rosenthal, T. Hemscheidt, D. J. McGillicuddy, D. M. Anderson, L. C. Backer, H. Solo-Gabriele and A. B. Boehm. 2011. Prominent human health impacts from several marine microbes: History, ecology, and public health implications. Int. J. Microbio. Doi: 10.1155/2011/152815.

51. Avellaneda, P., J. Englehardt, J. Olascoaga, E. Babcock, L. Brand, D. Lirman, W. Rogge, H. Solo-Gabriele, and G. Tchobanoglous. 2011. Relative risk assessment of cruise ships biosolids disposal alternatives. Mar. Poll. Bull. 62: 2157-2169.

52. Brand, L.E. 2012. Toxic Harmful Algal Blooms: Natural and anthropogenic causes. Pp. 19-51, In: New Trends in Marine and Freshwater Toxins: Food Safety Concerns, Ed. by A.G. Cabado and J.M. Vieites, Nova Science Publishers, New York.

53. Brand, L.E., L. Campbell, and E. Bresnan. 2012. Karenia: The biology and ecology of a toxic genus. Harmful Algae 14: 156-178.

54. Brand, L.E. 2012.  Toxic Harmful Algal Blooms: Natural andanthropogenic causes. Pp. 19-52, In: New Trends in Marine and Freshwater Toxins: Food Safety Concerns, Ed. by A.G. Cabado and J.M. Vieites, Nova Science Publishers, New York.

55. Brand, L.E., L. Campbell, and E. Bresnan. 2012.  Karenia: The biology and ecology of a toxic genus. Harmful Algae 14: 156-178.

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