The objective of our research is to understand the role of the oceans in climate change occurring on time scales of up to decades. The research involves understanding the physical processes that determine the capacity of the oceans to take up atmospheric constituents, such as carbon-dioxide. On time scales of decades, there are two main physical processes that affect the way the oceans and atmosphere interact. First is by direct air-sea exchange, where we use satellite and direct oceanographic observations to map the global air-sea flux of carbon dioxide. Then once the atmospheric gases are in the oceans, we study how fast they mix. We participate in several international Global Change programs. Our contribution includes the measurements of two chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) to study the rate at which the world's oceans circulate. Although the major fate for CFCs is the stratosphere, a small amount dissolves as a gas in the surface waters of the ocean. The CFC concentrations are used to infer the rate at which atmospheric gases are mixed into the ocean interior.
R.A. Fine and F.J. Millero. The compressibility of water as a function of temperature and pressure. Journal Chemical Physics, 59: 5529-5536.
R.A. Fine, D.P. Wang and F.J. Millero. The equation of state of seawater. Journal of Marine Research, 32: 433‑456.
R.A. Fine and F.J. Millero. The high pressure P-V-T properties of deuterium oxide. Journal of Chemical Physics, 63: 89-95.
C.T. Chen, R.A. Fine and F.J. Millero. The equation of state of pure water determined from sound speeds. Journal of Chemical Physics, 66: 2142-2144.
R.A. Fine and H.G. Ostlund. Source function for tritium transport models in the Pacific. Geophysical Research Letters, 4: 461-464.
R.A. Fine, C.N.K. Mooers and F.J. Millero. Effects of nonlinear P-V-T properties on the potential energy distribution in the Atlantic Ocean. Deep-Sea Research, 25: 15-22.
C.T. Chen, R.A. Fine and F.J. Millero. Comment on "A new density relation for pure and saline water", by B. Gebhart and J.C. Mollendorf. Deep-Sea Research, 25: 499-501.
R.A. Fine and H.G. Ostlund. Exchange times in the Pacific equatorial current system. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 49: 447-452.
R.A. Fine, J.L. Reid and H.G. Ostlund. Circulation of tritium in the Pacific Ocean. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 11: 3-14.
R.G. Zika and R.A. Fine. The marine micronutrients of nitrogen, phosphorus, and silicon. In Mitsui, A. and Black, C.B., eds., Biosolar Resources 1 Pt. 2, Fundamental Principals. CRC Press, Inc. Boca Raton, FL 33431.
R.A. Fine, W.H. Peterson, C.G. Rooth and H.G. Ostlund. Cross-equatorial tracer transport in the upper waters of the Pacific Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research, 88: 763-769.
R.A. Fine. Direct evidence using tritium data for the throughflow from the Pacific to the Indian Ocean. Nature, 315: 478-480.
R.A. Fine, W.H. Peterson and H.G. Ostlund. The penetration of tritium into the tropical Pacific. Journal of Physical Oceanography, l7: 553-564.
E. Lindstrom, R. Lukas, R. Fine, E. Firing, S. Godfrey, G. Meyers and M. Tsuchiya. The Western Equatorial Pacific Ocean circulation study. Nature, 330: 533-537.
R.A. Fine, M.J. Warner and R.F. Weiss. Water mass modification at the Agulhas Retroflection: Chlorofluoromethane Studies. Deep-Sea Research, 35: 311-332.
M.J. McPhaden and R.A. Fine. A Dynamical interpretation of the tritium maximum in the Central Equatorial Pacific. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 18: 1454-1457.
R.A. Fine and R. Molinari. A continuous Deep Western Boundary Current between Abaco (26.5°N) and Barbados (13°N). A Rapid Response paper in Deep-Sea Research, 35: 1441-1450.
M. Tsuchiya, R. Lukas, R.A. Fine, E. Firing and E. Lindstrom. Source waters of the Pacific Equatorial Undercurrent. Progress in Oceanography, 23: 101-147.
K.A. Van Scoy, R.A. Fine and H.G. Ostlund. Two decades of mixing tritium into the North Pacific Ocean. Deep-Sea Research, 38: Suppl., 5191-5219.
R. Lukas, E. Firing, P. Hacker, P.L. Richardson, C.A. Collins, R.A. Fine, R. Gammon. Observations of the Mindanao Current during the Western Equatorial Pacific Ocean Circulation Study (WEPOCS). Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 96: 7089-7104.
K.A. Van Scoy, D.B. Olson, R.A. Fine. Ventilation of North Pacific Intermediate Water: The role of the Alaskan Gyre. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 96: 16801-16810.
D.B. Olson, R.A. Fine and A.L. Gordon. Convective modifications of water masses in the Agulhas. Deep-Sea Research, 39: S163-S181.
R.L. Molinari, R.A. Fine, and E.. Johns. The Deep Western Boundary Current in the tropical North Atlantic. Deep-Sea Research, 39: 1967-1984.
D.B. Olson, G.L. Hitchcock, R.A. Fine, B.A. Warren. Maintenance of the low-oxygen layer in the central Arabian Sea. Deep-Sea Research, 40: 673-685.
R.A. Fine. Circulation of Antarctic Intermediate Water in the Indian Ocean. Deep-Sea Research, 40: 2021-2042.
R.A. Fine, R. Lukas, F.M. Bingham, M.J. Warner and R.H. Gammon. The Western Equatorial Pacific: A water mass crossroads. Journal of Geophysical Research, 99: 25063-25080.
R.A. Fine. Tracers, time scales, and the thermohaline circulation: The lower limb in the North Atlantic Ocean. Reviews of Geophysics, 33: 1353-1365.
M.P. Stephens, G. Samuels, D.B. Olson, R.A. Fine and T. Takahashi. Sea-Air flux of CO2 in the North Pacific using satellite data. Journal of Geophysical Research, 100: 13571-13583.
A.L. Gordon and R.A. Fine. Pathways of water between the Pacific and Indian Oceans in the Indonesian Seas. Nature, 379: 146-149.
S.E. Wijffels, J.M. Toole, H.L. Bryden, R.A. Fine, W.J. Jenkins and J.L. Bullister, 1996. The water masses and circulation at 10°N in the Pacific. Deep-Sea Research, 43: 501-544.
E. Johns, R.A. Fine and R.L. Molinari. Deep Flow along the Western Boundary south of the Blake Bahama Outer Ridge. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 27: 2187-2208.
E.A. Howell, S.C. Doney, R.A. Fine and D.B. Olson. Geochemical estimates of denitrification in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal during WOCE. Geophysical Research Letters, 24: 2549-2552.
M.A. Haines, M.E. Luther and R.A. Fine. Model-validated parametrization for air-sea gas transfer in the north Indian Ocean. Geophysical Research Letters, 24: 2545-2548.
R.L. Molinari, R.A. Fine, W.D. Wilson, R.G. Curry, J. Abell, and M.S. McCartney. The arrival of recently formed Labrador Sea Water in the Deep Western Boundary Current at 26.5°N. Geophysical Research Letters, 25: 2249-2252.
M. Aydin, Z Top, R.A. Fine and D.B. Olson. Modification of waters in the northeastern subpolar Pacific. Journal of Geophysical Research, 103: 30,923-30,940.
O. PlŠhn, M. Rhein, R.A. Fine and K.F. Sullivan. Pollutants from the Gulf War serve as water mass tracer in the Arabian Sea. Geophysical Research Letters, 26: 71-74.
M.A. Haines, R. A. Fine, M.E. Luther, and Z. Ji. Particle trajectories in an Indian Ocean model and sensitivity to seasonal forcing. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 29(4): 584-598.
W.M. Smethie, R.A. Fine, A. Putzka, E.P. Jones. Tracing the flow of North Atlantic Deep Water using chlorofluorocarbons. Journal of Geophysical Research, 105: 14,297-14,234.
J.M. Waworuntu, R.A. Fine, D.B. Olson, and A.L. Gordon. Recipe for the Banda Sea Water. Journal of Marine Research, 42: 1-25.
W.M. Smethie, Jr., and R.A. Fine. Rates of North Atlantic Deep Water formation calculated from chlorofluorocarbon inventories. Deep-Sea Research, 48: 189-215.
P. Schlosser, J.L. Bullister, R. Fine, W.J. Jenkins, R. Key, J. Lupton, W. Roether, and W. M. Smethie, Jr. Transformation and Age of Water Masses. In: Ocean Circulation and Climate. Observing and Modelling the Global Ocean, edited by Gerold Siedler, John Church and John Gould, International Geophysics Series, Vol. 77, pp 431-454, Academic Press, London.
R.A. Fine, K.A. Maillet, K.F. Sullivan, and D. Willey. Circulation and ventilation flux of the Pacific Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 106(10): 22,159-22,178.
R.A. Fine. CFCs in the Ocean. In: Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences, edited by John Steele, Steve Thorpe and Karl Turekian, Academic Press, London, pp. 441-450.
R.A. Fine, L. Merlivat, W. Roether, P. Schlosser, W.M. Smethie, Jr., and R. Wanninkhof. Observing Tracers and the Carbon Cycle, Chapter 4.2. In: Observing the Ocean in the 21st Century, C.J. Koblinsky and N.R. Smith (eds), GODAE Project Office and Bureau of Meteorology, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 361-375.
B.M. O’Connor, R.A. Fine, K.A. Maillet and D.B. Olson. Formation rates of subtropical underwater in the Pacific Ocean. Deep-Sea Research I, 49 (9), 1571-1590.
R.A. Fine, M. Rhein and C. Andrié. Using a CFC effective age to estimate propagation and storage of climate anomalies in the Deep Western North Atlantic Ocean. Geophys. Res. Letts., 29(24), 2227, doi:10.1029/2002 GL015618.
D.A. Willey, R.A. Fine, R.E. Sonnerup, J.L. Bullister, W.M. Smethie, Jr., and M.J. Warner. Global oceanic chlorofluorocarbon inventory. Geophys. Res. Letts., 31, L01303, doi: 10.1029/2003GL018816.
B.M. O’Connor, R.A. Fine, and D.B. Olson. A global comparison of subtropical underwater formation rates, Deep-Sea Res. I, 52, 1569-1590, 2005.
W.M. Smethie, LeBel, D.A., Fine, R.A., Rhein, M., Kieke, D. On Past and future changes of the Ocean’s Meridional Overturning Circulation. In A. Schmittner, J. Chiang and S. Hemming (Editors), "Past and Future Changes of the Ocean's Meridional Overturning Circulation: Mechanisms and Impacts", AGU Geophysical Monograph .Series, 173, 119-130.
R.A. Fine, W.M. Smethie, Jr., J.L. Bullister, D-H. Min, M.J. Warner, M. Rhein, A. Poisson, and R.F. Weiss. Decadal Ventilation and Mixing of Indian Ocean Waters, Deep-Sea Res. I, 54, doi: 10.1016/j.dsr.2007.10.002.
T. Qu, S. Gao, I. Fukumori, R.A. Fine, and E.J. Lindstrom. The subduction of South Pacific waters, Geophys. Res. Letts., 35, L02610, doi:10.1029/2007GL032605.
D.A. LeBel, W.M. Smethie, Jr., M. Rhein, D. Kieke, R.A.. Fine, J.L. Bullister, D-H. Min, W. Roether, R.F. Weiss, C. Andrie, D. Smythe-Wright, and P. Jones. The Distribution of CFC-11 in the North Atlantic During WOCE: Inventories and Calculated Water Mass Formation Rates, Deep-Sea Res. I, 55, 891-910.
T. Qu, S. Gao, I. Fukumori, R.A. Fine, and E.J. Lindstrom. Origin and Pathway of Equatorial 13¼C Water in the Pacific identified by a simulated passive tracer and its adjoint, J. Phys. Oceanogr., accepted.
B.M. Sloyan, L. Talley, T. Chereskin, R.A. Fine, and J. Holte. Subantarctic Mode Water Formation: The role of turbulent mixing, J. Phys. Oceanogr., under revision December 2008.
Y. You, T. Rossby, W. Zenk, A. G. Ilahude, M. Fukasawa, R. Davis, D. Hu, D. Susanto, P. L. Richardson, C. Villanoy, C.-T. Liu, J.H. Lee, R. Molcard, W.W. Pandoe, D. J. Baker, M. Koga, T. Qu, R. Fine, A. Gabric, R. Robertson, Y. Masumoto, S. Riser, H. Hasumi, P. Sigray and T. Lee. Indonesian Throughflow: PACific Source Water INvestigation (PACSWIN) - An international ocean climate program, In book: Climate Alert: Climate Change Monitoring and Strategy, under review.
H.G. Ostlund and R.A. Fine. Oceanic distribution and transport of tritium. Proceedings of the IAEA/NEA International Symposium on the Behavior of Tritium in the Environment, 16-20 October 1978, San Francisco, CA., USA, IAEA-SM-232/67. International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria 1979, 711 pp.
C.G.H. Rooth, R.A. Fine and H.G. Ostlund. Abyssal mixing and circulation in the North Pacific from radiocarbon data. RSMAS Technical Report TR-80-2.
R.A. Fine and H.G. Ostlund. Equatorial exchange from tritium data. Proceedings SCOR Working Group 47, Venice, Italy, 26 April-1 May, 1981.
R.A. Fine, D. Moore and J. Morrison. Indo/U.S. Science and Technology Initiative: Monsoon Research. EOS, Transactions American Geophysical Union 65: 762-763 (Report)
R.A. Fine, W. H. Peterson and H. G. Ostlund. Upwelling in the equatorial Pacific using tritium data. Proceedings Symposium on vertical motion in the equatorial upper ocean and its effects upon living resources and the atmosphere, SCOR working Group 56, Paris, France, 6-10 May.
M.F. Cook, J.M. Toole, G. P. Knapp, R.A. Fine, Z. Top and J.C. Jennings. A Trans-Indian Ocean hydrographic section at Latitude 32°S. Data Report of RRS Charles Darwin Cruise #29. WHOI Technical Report.
R.A. Fine and D. Walker. The impact of major oceanographic research programs: Community input requested. EOS, Transactions American Geophysical Union July 15 issue.
B.M. O’Connor, R.A. Fine, K.A. Maillet, and D.B. Olson. The rate of formation of the Subtropical Underwater (STUW) in the North and South Pacific from Drifter and Tracer Data. International WOCE Newsletter, Vol. 31, pp. 18-20, June 1998.
B.M. O’Connor, R.A. Fine, K.A. Maillet, and D.B. Olson, Formation rates of subtropical underwater in the Pacific by synthesis of multiple data types, U.S. WOCE Implementation Report Number 10, 1998 U.S. WOCE Report, p 30-33, August, 1998.
B.M. O’Connor, R.A. Fine, K.A. Maillet, and D.B. Olson. Estimating water mass formation rates using a multi-data approach. US WOCE Annual Report.
J.M. Waworuntu, R.A. Fine, D.B. Olson, and A.L. Gordon. Spreading and velocity patterns of the Indonesian throughflow, International WOCE Newsletter, Vol. 35, pp. 26-28, June 1999.
R.A. Fine and Committee. Global Ocean Science: Toward an Integrated Approach, National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 1999.
R.A. Fine. A Case Study: Report Recognizes the Need for Organization and Cooperation in Ocean Science. Invited Abstract. Joint IOC/SCOR/SCOPE Assessment of the state of Marine Science and its contribution to sustainable development, Potsdam, Federal Republic of Germany, October 1999.
R.A. Fine, Tracers of Ocean Water Masses. Article Code 281, in Water Sciences, M. Scott, D. Nelson, and F. Anderson (eds), Macmillan Reference USA/Gale Group, Michigan.
R.A. Fine, The Need for Organization and Cooperation in Ocean Science. In: Oceans 2020. Science, Trends, and the Challenge of Sustainability, edited by John G. Field, Gotthilf Hempel, and Colin P. Summerhayes, Chapter 10, Box 10.1, p. 260, Island Press, Washington, DC.
You, Y., T. Rossby, W. Zenk, A. Gordon, A.G. Ilahude, N. Suginohara, R. Davis, D. Hu, D. Susanto, P.L. Richardson, C. Villanoy, C.-T. Liu, K. Kim, R. Molcard, M. Fukasawa, W.W. Pandoe, D.J. Baker, M. Koga, T. Qu, R. Fine, A. Gabric, R. Robertson, Y. Masumoto and S. Riser, PACSWIN: A new international ocean climate program in the Indonesian seas and adjacent regions. CLIVAR Exchanges, 13 (No.2), 30-31.