Research activities in my laboratory include studies of comparative fish physiology and aquatic toxicology. Within comparative physiology, a particular area of interest is osmoregulation in freshwater, marine and euryhaline fish. An additional field of research is copper homeostasis in fish. Toxicity of metals to both freshwater and seawater invertebrates and fish is also at focus with special emphasis on physiological mechanisms of metal toxicity. The above research areas are pursued through whole animal studies, biochemical and electrophysiological studies on isolated tissues and organs as well as molecular techniques. Surgical procedures and isotopic techniques are employed.