Study in Ecology: Coral bleaching increases chances of coral disease
Disease can exacerbate bleaching; bleaching leads to increased disease prevalence
October 04, 2009
WASHINGTON, D.C. — Mass coral bleaching has devastated coral colonies around the world for almost three decades. Now scientists have found that bleaching can make corals more susceptible to disease and, in turn, coral disease can exacerbate the negative effects of bleaching. A paper in the October issue of the journal Ecology shows that when they occur together, this combination of afflictions causes greater harm to corals than either does on its own.
“Traditionally, scientists have attributed coral declines after mass bleaching events to the bleaching alone,” says Marilyn Brandt, a post-doctoral researcher at the University of Miami’s Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science and the lead author on the paper. “This study shows that the interplay between diseases and bleaching can play a much larger role than we realized.”
Corals rely on algae that live inside each coral polyp to provide nutrients and supplemental oxygen. Bleaching occurs when these colorful algae die out or leave the polyps, often in response to overly warm ocean conditions. Without their brightly colored algae, the coral’s skeleton becomes visible through its transparent tissue, making it appear white or ‘bleached’. Although the tissue remains intact and can recover over time, this stressful condition can cause corals to stop growing and reproducing.
Warmer water temperatures can also lead to increased incidences of coral disease, which, unlike most bleaching, can cause irreparable loss of coral tissues. In many cases, bleaching and disease occur concurrently on coral reefs. Brandt and her colleagues wondered if the occurrences of bleaching and disease were linked beyond simply occurring under the same conditions.
“Coral bleaching and coral diseases are both related to prolonged thermal stress,” says Brandt. “But we wanted to look closer to find out whether they were interacting and what was actually causing the decline we see.”
In the summer and fall of 2005, the same oceanic temperature shifts that contributed to the creation of Hurricane Katrina caused a warm mass of water to settle over the northeast Caribbean and parts of Florida. This sustained warming triggered a mass coral bleaching event that affected up to 90 percent of coral reef cover in the area. Brandt and her colleagues surveyed colonies in the Florida Keys before, during and after this event to determine the relationship between bleaching and coral disease. The researchers found that the coral diseases they observed were related to bleaching, but in different ways. The prevalence of white plague disease increased during the bleaching event, an observation that Brandt says may have to do with increased susceptibility to the disease.
“Higher temperatures can increase the growth rate of coral pathogens, such as bacteria and other microbes, so we probably see a higher disease incidence because of the expansion of these pathogens in the environment,” Brandt says. “But bleaching is also a stressed state, and just like any other animal under stress, the coral’s disease resistance is lowered.”
In addition, the researchers found that colonies already infected with another disease, known as dark spot disease, suffered more extensive bleaching than healthy corals. Brandt thinks a fungus that’s likely associated with this infection could cause the relationship of the algae and the coral to be weakened, leaving the corals more susceptible to bleaching.
Because diseases happen on a much finer scale than mass bleaching events, Brandt says that more informed management of coral ecosystems should involve more frequent monitoring to determine the underlying causes of coral damage.
“Understanding how these different stressors interact can help explain the mortality pattern we see after large-scale bleaching events,” says Brandt. “If we understand what’s causing the mortality, we can institute control measures that are more specific to the causes.”
The University of Miami’s Rosenstiel School was founded in the 1940’s, and has grown into one of the world’s premier marine and atmospheric research institutions. Offering dynamic interdisciplinary academics, the Rosenstiel School is dedicated to helping communities to better understand the planet, participating in the establishment of environmental policies, and aiding in the improvement of society and quality of life. For more information, please visit www.rsmas.miami.edu
The Ecological Society of America is the world’s largest professional organization of ecologists, representing 10,000 scientists in the United States and around the globe. Since its founding in 1915, ESA has promoted the responsible application of ecological principles to the solution of environmental problems through ESA reports, journals, research, and expert testimony to Congress. ESA publishes four journals and convenes an annual scientific conference. Visit the ESA website at www.esa.org
UM Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science
Ecological Society of America