WHERE THERE IS SMOKE, THERE IS A DATA SET!

Paquita Zuidema

Paquita Zuidema

I’m excited to share that early LASIC measurements make clear that black carbon, the component of smoke that most strongly absorbs sunlight, is not only almost always present at the surface of Ascension Island, but at times in extremely high concentrations. During those times, the amount of smoke measured at Ascension is comparable to that measured directly downstream of wildfires in eastern Washington during ARM’s Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP) campaign.

In the time series of data analyzed from May 18 to November 30, smoke was detected at the first ARM Mobile Facility (AMF1) 94 percent of the time (using a 2 ng/m^3 threshold for the black carbon mass concentration). Several time periods were particularly smoky, and I have indicated the peak days on this image.

August was the month with the most smoke overall. What was truly unexpected is both 1) the peak numbers and 2) how commonly smoke was detected.

This is remarkable because the remote island is ~1,700 kilometers away from the source of the smoke. While southern Africa produces one-third of the planet’s carbon from fires, it has never been clear where the smoke is ultimately deposited. Similar trends are also evident in the absorption of red, green, and blue light, and in the number of particles that can nucleate cloud droplets.

Prior to LASIC, only one anecdotal aircraft profile, taken in the year 2000, hinted at the possibility that smoke could be present in the boundary layer.

A second look at the plotted data also shows that the black carbon is associated with relatively more cloud condensation nuclei early on in the summer, suggesting the composition of the smoke may change as the season evolves.

We are also fortunate that the AMF1 will be present on the island through October 31, 2017. This means the same instruments will sample two biomass burning seasons and allow us to see if the seasonal evolution is consistent.

These LASIC measurements represent the culmination of the efforts of many dedicated scientists, the technical crew and logistics managers—all of whom must negotiate the challenges of working in such a remote, isolated site.

This is an amazing data set.

Paquita Zuidema, a professor at the University of Miami, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, and principal investigator for the Layered Atlantic Smoke Interactions with Clouds (LASIC) campaign, sent this update. 

Provosts’ and AGU Student Paper Award Winners

Several UM Rosenstiel School faculty received awards for their research from the UM Office of the Provost.

Bill Johns accepts research awardWilliam Johns, professor of ocean sciences, received a Provost’s Funding Award. This new UM research award recognizes productivity in research, as evidenced by sustained, peer-reviewed extramural funding and is selected by a committee of Research Deans. “Your ability to propose and perform innovative and relevant research, and thus maintain a well-funded research program over an extended period of time, is exemplary,” said UM Vice Provost for Research John Bixby.

Johns is a seagoing oceanographer specializing in the use of long-term moored instrumentation to study ocean circulation. His research involves studies of the large-scale wind-driven circulation, with emphasis on the dynamics of western boundary currents, and on deep flows related to the global thermohaline circulation and climate variability.

The 2017 Provost’s Research Award recipients from the Rosenstiel School are:

  • Douglas Crawford Department of Marine Biology & Ecology                            Project, titled “Providing Physiological Phenotypes for 1,000 Human Genomes to Interpret the Importance of DNA Sequence Variation.”
  • Cassandra Gaston Department of Atmospheric Sciences                               Project, titled “Determining the Impact of Saharan Dust on Clouds and Climate.”
  • Neil Hammerschlag Department of Marine Ecosystems & Society                   Project, titled “Assessing Performance Breadth of Large Mobile Fishes in Relation to Temperature Variability Using Multi-sensor Biotelemetry.”

The Provost’s Awards for Scholarly Activity and Research Awards were presented on March 29 at a special event to recognize their research accomplishments. The Provost’s Research Awards are administered by the UM Office of the Vice Provost for Research to provide salary support and direct research costs to faculty for research.

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AGU Outstanding Student Paper Award

AJDA SAVARIN

AJDA SAVARIN

UM Rosenstiel School graduate student Ajda Savarin won the AGU Outstanding Student Paper Award at the 2016 AGU Fall Meeting for her research presentation, titled “Diurnal Cycle of Convection and Air-Sea-Land Interaction Associated with MJO over the Maritime Continent.”

“There is a lot of competition for this distinguished award,” Michael G. Brown, professor of ocean sciences and director of the UM Rosenstiel School graduate program, “Congratulations to Ajda!”

Savarin is pursuing a Ph.D. in Meteorology and Physical Oceanography. Her research relates to the study of an atmospheric phenomenon called the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), including in its initiation, and its eastward propagation across the region of Maritime Continent, and modeling those processes using the Unified Wave Interface – Coupled Model (UWIN-CM).

Scientists Launch Hurricane-Tracking Satellites

A new kind of weather observation system was launched by NASA today that will provide information to help better monitor and forecast tropical cyclones around the world. The 8-microsatellite constellation of observatories was the brainchild of a group of scientists from the University of Michigan.  UM Rosenstiel School Professor Sharan Majumdar and Dr. Robert Atlas, Director of NOAA’s Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) were tasked with assembling and guiding a team of researchers to conduct data impact studies on hurricane model analyses and predictions.

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After three days of delays, the Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS) was carried aloft aboard Orbital ATK’s Stargazer L-1011 aircraft, inside a three-stage Pegasus XL rocket from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida and launched over the Atlantic Ocean at 7:38 a.m. EST on Thursday, December 15.  At approximately 40,000 feet over the western Atlantic Ocean, the Pegasus rocket was released from the aircraft at 8:38 a.m.  The rocket was then launched in mid-air to take all 8 CYGNSS spacecraft in to orbit around Earth.

Once in orbit, CYGNSS will make frequent and accurate measurements of ocean surface winds throughout the lifecycle of tropical storms and hurricanes. The constellation of eight observatories will measure surface winds in and near a hurricane’s inner core, including regions beneath the eyewall and intense inner rainbands that previously could not be measured from space because of the heavy precipitation.

“The University of Miami and NOAA AOML team has demonstrated the potential for CYGNSS data to improve numerical analyses and predictions of the surface wind structure in tropical cyclones.  We expect that the investment in new microsatellite technologies such as CYGNSS will pave the way for better predictions of tropical cyclone impacts to benefit society around the globe,” said Majumdar.

Majumdar and colleagues wrote about the scientific motivation and the primary science goal of the mission, which is to better understand how and why winds in hurricanes intensify, in a March 2016 article in the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society.

The local CYGNSS research team included Sharan Majumdar and Brian McNoldy from the UM Rosenstiel School, Robert Atlas from NOAA AOML, and Bachir Annane, Javier Delgado and Lisa Bucci (also a UM graduate student) from the UM Rosenstiel School’s Cooperative Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Science (CIMAS).  They have been working with simulated CYGNSS data since early 2013 to demonstrate and maximize the data’s impact in hurricane forecast models through the use of an OSSE, or Observing System Simulation Experiment, summarized by McNoldy in a NASA blog post.

Watch CYGNSS overview animation

Watch the launch!

Learn more about the hurricane-probing mission on NASA’s website.

–UM Rosenstiel School Communications Office

Book Review by Professor Amy Clement

Amy Clement 1UM Rosenstiel School Professor Amy Clement provided the following review of the book “Sea Level Rise in Florida: Science, Impacts, and Options” by Hine, Chambers, Clayton, Hafen, and Mitchum.

It’s a bright day with not a cloud in sight, yet people in Miami Beach are wading across streets through knee-deep water: seawater, that is. This scene has become increasingly commonplace in the lowest lying parts of South Florida, often referred to as sunny day or nuisance flooding. You don’t need to be a scientist to know that something is wrong with this picture. But if you want to look at the problem through the lens of a scientist, the picture comes into awesome relief. That is what ‘Sea Level Rise in Florida: Science, Impacts, and Options’ offers it’s readers. The authors are experts in wide ranging fields, and take readers on a tour of South Florida that begins millions of years ago when Florida was the bottom of a vast ocean that covered what is now most of the continental United States. This aspect of natural history is not just a geological wonder; it is critical to understanding the problem we Floridians face today. We have built a dense urban area and a vast agriculture industry on this porous, limestone rock that barely ekes its way above sea level, vulnerable to the encroaching water from all sides, and from beneath our feet. A chapter on the ecosystem impacts of sea level rise provides lessons about the unique ecology of Florida, which alone is worth the read. Perhaps the most poignant pictures in this well-illustrated book are the elevation maps of the state, highlighting how the southern part of the state is within several feet of sea level, with these low lying areas overlapping the past, present, and projected future development areas. The book’s fourth and final chapter gives some ideas for solutions, though there is clearly no ‘silver bullet.’ It is important for citizens of our state to be aware of efforts to both reduce the greenhouse gas emissions that are at the root cause of the problem and to engineer solutions that may allow us to adapt to the inevitable impacts. This book is an efficient way for Floridians to quickly come up to speed on the basics of a grand, global problem that has very local implications for current residents of our State and for future generations.

Amy Clement is a professor of Atmospheric Science at the University of Miami Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences.

Awards and Accolades

Outstanding Mentor Award
Danielle McDonaldUM Rosenstiel School Professor Danielle McDonald is the 2016 recipient of the Outstanding Mentor Award. In its third inauguration, this award is meant to recognize outstanding mentors who go above and beyond in fostering the professional and personal development of RSMAS graduate students. This award is based on student nominations.

McDonald was described as an “engaging researcher and educator who demonstrates a vested interest in her students’ success and personal well-being.”

An associate professor of marine biology and ecology, McDonald directs the UM Toadfish Lab.  She combines whole animal physiology, molecular biology, pharmacology and toxicology research to study the interactions between serotonin (5-HT), its receptors and transporters and the stress hormone, cortisol, as toadfish have a unique physiological process, pulsatile urea excretion, that involves all these components. Her work has toxicological as well as human health relevance as it gives some insight on the impact of chronic antidepressant administration, which has many negative side effects in humans.

 

Graduate Student Receives NASA Fellowship

Ryan KramerUM Rosenstiel School graduate student Ryan Kramer was awarded the NASA Earth and Space Science (NESSF) Fellowship for research in the area of Earth Science. Kramer was one of 73 Earth Science fellows to receive the award, which provides a maximum award of $30,000 for one year, with two more potential years of funding.

Kramer, a PhD student in the UM Rosenstiel School Atmospheric Sciences Program, was awarded for his proposal “Understanding Radiative Feedbacks and Radiative Forcings of the Hydrological Cycle.”

The purpose of the NESSF is to ensure continued training of a highly qualified workforce in disciplines required to achieve NASA’s scientific goals. Awards resulting from the competitive selection are made in the form of training grants to the respective universities and educational institutions, with the faculty advisor serving as the principal investigator.

“I’m extremely honored to receive this Fellowship,” said Kramer. “It will provide me significant freedom to continue my research on the earth’s hydrological cycle as effectively as possible, and will help me build a valuable connection to NASA and their incredible resources.  There is such great work being done at RSMAS, and I am proud to represent the School in some small way.”

Awards for Excellence 

Congratulations to the winners of the 2016 UM Graduate Student Association and TA Excellence Awards:

UM Graduate Student Association Awardees

* Sean Kennelly was awarded the Linda Sher-Collado Memorial Staff Appreciation Award.
* Anna Ling was awarded the GSA Academic Excellence, Leadership, and Service Award.

TA Excellence Awardees

* Zack Daugherty for MSC 328: Introduction to Aquaculture
* Sharmila Giri for MSC 232: Introduction to Marine Biology Laboratory
* Jake Jerome for MSC 460: Spatial Applications for Marine Science

Professor Emeritus Receives Surprise Honor

Joe and lab plaque_IMG_1561UM Rosenstiel School Professor Emeritus Joseph Prospero received a unique recognition at the 100th anniversary celebration of the Izana Observatory, a world-renowned atmospheric research station located in Tenerife, Canary Islands.

“For the celebration they asked me to present a short lecture on the history of our aerosol studies at Izana,” said Prospero. “At the end of the lecture – and to my great surprise – they presented to me a large aluminum plaque that was intended to be affixed to a building.”

The Izana Observatory building is now named the “Joseph M. Prospero Aerosol Research Laboratory.”

Known as the “grandfather of dust,” Prospero’s lifelong work has been to measure the effects of airborne dust. Since 1965, he and his colleagues have been measuring dust particles in Barbados, West Indies, thus creating the longest dust measurement data set in science.

Sergio and Joe with my lab at far left_MG_1543

“I have had a long association with the observatory, starting in 1974 when I started aerosol sampling at the site,” said Prospero. “Over the years we have continued to cooperate and we have held some major field campaigns there.”

About 100 people representing the major atmospheric and meteorological centers attended Prospero’s lecture.